General pathology describes a complex and broad field that involves the study of the
mechanisms behind cell and tissue injury and understanding how the body responds to and
repairs injury. Examples of areas that may be studied include necrosis, neoplasia, wound
healing, inflammation, and how cells adapt to injury.
Pathologists use gross, microscopic, immunologic, genetic, and molecular modalities to
determine the presence of disease, and frequently work closely with surgeons, radiologists,
and oncologists. Pathologists can sub-specialize in different areas, such as gastroenterology,
gynecologic pathology, blood diseases, clotting disorders, microbiology, lung and breast
cancers, and more. For every sub-specialty in medicine or surgery, there is a pathologist
counterpart, helps to make the correct diagnosis and guide the care of the patient.
Pathology is the study of disease by scientific methods.
The word pathology came from the Latin words “patho” & “logy”. ‘Patho’ means
disease and ‘logy’ means study, therefore pathology is a scientific study of disease.
Diseases may be defined as an abnormal variation in the structure or function of any part of
Pathology gives explanations of a disease by studying the following four aspects of
3. Morphologic changes and
4. Functional derangements and clinical significance.